LUMPY SKIN DISEASE
Lumpy Skin Disease has emerged in India and created a deadly environment in more than 10 states of India including Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujrat, and Punjab. According to the reports, the disease is majorly targeted by cattle, and more than 60,000+ animals died due to this and many more are suffering from it.
In this blog, you will read about lumpy skin disease, in brief, its symptoms, treatment, and common FAQs. You will also read about the negative implications of this disease on the economy.
What is Lumpy Skin Disease?
Lumpy skin infection is caused by a lumpy skin disease virus. This virus cannot be transmitted to humans as it is not zoonotic. The disease usually affects animals like buffaloes and cows. The disease is vector-borne, which means it spreads by the direct contact of vectors like flies, mosquitoes, lice, and some wasps. Some studies have shown that LSD also spreads during artificial insemination by animal semen.
Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV)
LSDV belongs to the Capripoxvirus genus from the family Poxviridae (Disease like monkeypox and smallpox also belongs to this family). This virus shows similarities with Goatpox virus (GTPV) and Sheeppox virus (SPPV) in immune response or antigenic properties.
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the incubation period (the time between catching the viral infection and developing symptoms) is about 28 days.
How does this disease affect on Host?
The virus of the disease affects the lymph nodes, causing them to enlarge so much that they are visible on the skin of the infected animal. They appear like lumps on the skin and from here the disease got its name. The lumps can be on the neck, genital area, head, and limbs. These lumps can turn into ulcers and develop a mark or scabs on the skin.
Lumpy skin disease in cattle
The majorly targeted animal from this disease is cattle. There are several cases in Maharastra and Rajasthan in which cattle are dying from this disease every day.
What are the symptoms of LSD?
The main Lumpy skin disease symptoms include:
- Skin nodules
- Formation of nodules on the body
Other symptoms include:
- High Fever
- Reduced Milk Production
- Loss of appetite
- Increased Nasal Discharge
- Water from the nose and eyes
- Increased Salivation
- Damaged hides
Causes of Lumpy Skin Disease
- Animal Semen
- Contaminated Food and Water
Lumpy skin disease Treatment
Because the disease in some areas resembles the Goatpox virus and Sheeppox Virus. Areas that have shown zero cases so far are using the Goatpox vaccine which is sufficient to fight LSD.
The collaboration of ICAR-NRCE (ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines) and IVRI (Indian Veterinary Research Institute) developed the Lumpy skin disease vaccine against the LSD called “Lumpi-ProVacInd”. The researchers used genetic engineering to weaken the virus strains and made this live attenuated vaccination in around 1.5 years. The vaccine has completed the trials and is ready for production.
Preventive Measures for Lumpy Skin Disease
- During this period, there should be limited animal movement
- Restriction of meeting healthy animals with infected animals
- For unaffected animals, vaccination is very important
- Isolation of infected animals
- Disinfectants at regular intervals for cleaning
- Proper Hygiene practices
- Vector control
- Awareness programs
What are the negative Implications of this disease?
According to FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and WOAH (World Organisation for Animal Health), due to this spread, there will be severe economic losses. Reduced milk production is the major symptom of this disease as the animals become weak and ultimately this will reduce milk production in the country. There are movements and trade bans that will impact the economy.
The largest milk producer all over the world is India with about 210 million tonnes annually but this disease made a challenge to the dairy industry. According to reports, Rajasthan milk production is reduced by 3-6 lakh liters/day.
Very needed information
Very helpful and informative 👍 ..
This provide all necessary information about this deadly cattle virus(lumpy), in a very easy language and the best part about this write-up is , this contains all the information in one blog.